Aqueous Digital

Top 501 SEO
& marketing terms.

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to the Top 501 SEO and Marketing Terms.



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Google Analytics terminology indicating that Google does not wish to share the data with you.

10 Blue Links

Search Engine display format showing ten organic search results.

10x Content

A term coined by Rand Fishkin meaning “Content that is 10 times better than the best result that can currently be found in the search results for a given keyword phrase or topic.”

200 OK

A HTTP status response code indicating that the request has been successful.

2xx Status Codes

A group of HTTP status codes indicating that a request was successfully received, understood, and accepted.

301 Redirect

A HTTP status code indicating the permanent move of a web page from one location to another.

302 Redirect

A HTTP status code that lets search engines know a website or page has been moved temporarily.

404 Error

This is a Page Not Found, File Not Found, or Server Not Found error message in HTTP standard response code.

4xx Status Codes:

4xx status codes are commonly HTTP error responses indicating an issue at the client’s end.

502 Error

A 502 Bad Gateway error is a HTTP status code indicating that one server has received an invalid response from another server on the internet.

5xx Status Codes:

A group of HTTP status codes highlighting that the server is aware of an error or is incapable of performing a valid request.

A/B Testing

Also known as split testing, is a process of showing two variants of the same web page, advertisement or email to different target audiences in order to analyse differences in performance.

Above the Fold

This refers to the upper half of the front page of a newspaper where an important story or photograph can be found. In web design, it refers to sections of a webpage that are visible without scrolling or clicking.

Above the Line (ATL)

Above-the-Line activity typically refers to the use of mass media paid for advertising, designed to reach a wide target audience where there is a direct cost involved to purchase it. E.g., TV, radio or outdoor advertising.

Advanced search operators

Advanced Search Operators (ASOs) are commands used to return results that are more relevant and specific. They are typically used to narrow down searches and go deeper into the results.


An advert in the form of editorial content. They are typically published in magazines, newspapers or on websites and often read like the publication’s own content.


Google Adwords now known as Google Ads is a pay per click (PPC) online advertising platform, where advertisers bid to display digital adverts, product listings, or videos to web users.


A marketing model that defines the customer journey using four main stages: Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action.


Short for ‘Asynchronous JavaScript and XML’ is a group of client-side web development techniques used to create asynchronous web applications.


A set of instructions designed to perform a specific task. Google search uses algorithms to rank websites.

Algorithm change

A term used to describe when a search engine periodically updates and improves the algorithms that are used to rank websites in organic search results.

Alt Attribute text (or Alt Text)

Used in HTML code to describe the appearance or function of an image on a page when it can’t be rendered.

Alt tags

Also known as ‘alternative attribute’ is a HTML attribute applied to image tags as a text alternative for search engines.

Alt Text

A shortened version of ‘Alt Attribute Text’. It is used in HTML code to describe the appearance or function of an image on a page when it cannot be rendered.

Alternative Text

Another name for Alt Attribute Text. It is used in HTML code to describe the appearance or function of an image on a page when it cannot be rendered.

Ambiguous Intent

Refers to a search term where the aim of the searcher is unclear and requires more clarification.


An open-source HTML framework developed by the AMP Open-Source Project. AMP is an abbreviation of Accelerated Mobile Pages.


In digital marketing this refers to content amplification, which is a way of helping your content reach a much wider audience.  This often involves a multichannel approach using a mix of media channels to disseminate content.


Analytics is the systematic computational analysis of data. Google Analytics for example is a web analytics tool that tracks and reports website traffic.

Anchor Text

Anchor text, link label or link text is the visible, clickable text in an HTML hyperlink.

Application Programming Interface (API)

A computer interface that allows interaction between different pieces of software.  API’s allow the creation and integration of apps.

Aqueous Digital

A digital marketing agency based in Cheshire, UK. Specialists in Search, Content and Reputation Management.

Artificial Intelligence

This refers to the simulation of human intelligence by computers that are programmed to think like humans and mimic actions such as learning and problem solving.


Async stands for asynchronous and is the process of loading the resources of a web page individually.


Authority in SEO is a qualitative measure that adds strength to the overall visibility and helps the organic ranking of a website.  Being an authority typically means being widely perceived as a leader in your field or industry.

Auto-generated content

Auto-generated content is produced using automated software. There is generally very little human involvement in the process and from an SEO perspective, it can sometimes be harmful to organic search engine rankings.


Short for Business-to-Business. This is activity directed from one business to another business e.g. wholesaler and retailer. B2B marketing activity is marketing targeted directly at businesses rather than individual consumers.


Short for Business-to-Consumer. This is activity from a business directly to consumers e.g. a retailer selling a product to a member of the public. B2C marketing activity is marketing targeted directly at end-users rather than other businesses.


Also known as inbound links, these are links from other websites that link to your website.


Chinese multinational technology company providing Internet services, products, and artificial intelligence.

Below-the-line (BTL)

Below-the-line advertising and marketing uses media and communication channels other than mainstream paid for advertising formats such as radio, television, outdoor, print, and cinema. Examples include: direct mail, trade shows, media relations, and search engine marketing.


A search engine owned and operated by Microsoft.

Black Box

Systems and technologies that perform functions without obvious visibility of how they do what they do.

Black Hat SEO

Unethical search engines optimisation practices that go against search engines guidelines and artificially boost website rankings.


Short for web log, this a website or web page that is updated regularly and typically written as discrete text entries in an informal or conversational diary style. Blogs are generally displayed in reverse chronological order, with the most recent first.


This refers to writing, photography, and other media that is published on a blog.  See ‘blog’.


Automated crawlers or spiders that analyse the Internet to find and index content.

Bottom of the Funnel

This is the purchase stage of a buying process, as a result of online marketing activity. When marketers refer to bottom-of-the-funnel content, they are talking about content that persuades customers to purchase a business’s products or services.

Bounce Rate

The percentage of visitors who visit a website and then leave without viewing any other page other than the one on which they landed.

Branded Keyword

A search query that incorporates an organisations brand name(s) and are unique to the organisation.


A secondary navigation scheme that displays user location on a website or application.

Breadcrumb Navigation

Breadcrumb navigation shows links back to each previous page the user visited and shows the current website location. See ‘breadcrumbs’ above.

Broken Link

Also known as a dead link, is a hyperlink on a web page that no longer works.


Bundling is when a business markets and sells several of its products or services together as a single combined unit

Business Blogging

The use of blogs for marketing and promoting a business. See ‘blog’ and ‘blogging’.

Buyer Persona

This is a detailed description of what your ideal customer is like. Typically based on market research, behavioural data and customer insight.


A hardware or software component that stores data, so that the same data can be served faster in the future.

Cached Page

A web page that has been saved by a browser on a PC or mobile device or a search engine on its servers. It is a backup of the raw HTML and content of a page saved at a point in time so it can be retrieved later.


Caffeine was a Google web indexing system update. It allowed Google to crawl and store data far more efficiently.


A call-to-action in marketing is information to tell a reader, listener, or viewer exactly what to do next and how to do it.  Sometimes shortened to CTA it commonly refers to words or phrases used in advertising or on web pages, that encourage an audience to act in a specific way.

Canonical link

A canonical link is an HTML element that specifies which of more than one page with similar content, is the preferred page. It helps webmasters specify to search engines, which page it should show and rank in search and prevents duplicate content issues.

Canonical Tag

A canonical tag or rel canonical is a method of informing search engines that a URL represents the master copy of a page.

Canonical URL

A canonical URL is the address of a page that a search engine interprets as the most representative of a group of duplicate pages on a website.


US legislation covering legal standards for sending commercial e-mail. Short for Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM).


Canadian federal law covering spam and other electronic threats. Short for Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (CASL).


Country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) are a way to show search engines which country you do business in. E.g. .uk


In marketing, a channel refers to people, organisations, and activities that transfer the ownership of goods from a point of production to the point of consumption. It can also refer to different types of communications and advertising routes to target an audience. i.e. ‘Communication Channel’ and ‘Advertising Channel’.

Churn Rate

Also known as rate of attrition, it is the percentage of a business’s customers or subscribers who cancel or don’t renew during a specified time period.


In SEO, citations typically refer to a group of individual business listings on various websites. Commonly, citations are in the form of an online business directory.

Click Bait

Text or thumbnail image that is designed to attract attention and to entice users to follow a link.   Generally misleading, sensationalised, or deceptive.

Click fraud

When an individual, computer program or script exploits advertisers by repeatedly clicking on a PPC advert.

Click-Through Rate (CTR)

The ratio of users who click on a link compared to the total number of users who view a page, email, or advertisement.

Client-side vs server-side rendering:

Server-side rendering is the most common method for displaying information on a screen. It converts HTML files on a server into usable information for a browser and fully populates a page on first load. Client-side rendering manages the routing dynamically without refreshing the page.


A search engine optimisation method where content presented to a search engine is presented differently in a user’s browser.

Closed-Loop Marketing

Marketing that relies on data and insights from closed-loop reporting. “Closing the loop” just means that sales teams report to Marketing about what happened to the leads that they received, which helps Marketing understand their best and worst lead sources.


Short of ‘Content Management System’. It is computer software used for the creation and management of digital content. CMS software is commonly used for updating and managing website content.


Co-citation in SEO is when a website is mentioned by two different sources, but not necessarily linked.

Comment Spam

A general term used to describe unsolicited spam advertising left by a spambot or spammer in the comments section of a blog, online forum or social media post.

Commercial investigation queries

A search engine query undertaken to compare products or services in order to find the most suitable option.


In marketing, competition refers to rival companies selling similar products or services.  Marketing activity typically aims to grow revenue by taking greater market share.


in marketing, content refers to information and experiences that are targeted at meeting the needs of an audience.  This could typically be text, video or audio and might address many of the question your customers are asking or provide information about your products, services, or brand.

Content is King

A phrase used in SEO to emphasise how important content is to achieve a high-ranking website. Originally coined by Microsoft’s Bill Gates in 1996.

Content Management System (CMS)

Computer software used for the creation and management of digital content. CMS software is commonly used for updating and managing website content.

Content Optimisation System (COS)

A software platform that optimises content and delivers a personalised experience to users.

Context Marketing

Context marketing is about delivering the right content to the right people, at the right time.


An action carried out by a user that meets the overall purpose of a web page or advert. E.g. a customer making a purchase, signing up to a newsletter, downloading a brochure or filling out an enquiry form.

Conversion Path

The journey and steps taken by a customer in meeting the overall aims of a web page, advert or other marketing activity.

Conversion Rate

The percentage of customers or users that perform a desired action as a result of visiting a website or engaging with a advert or other marketing initiative.

Conversion Rate Optimisation (CRO)

A process designed to increase the percentage of users or customers that perform s desired action on a webpage or as the result of engaging with an advert or other marketing activity.


In SEO, ranking correlation is an analysis of search results in order to understand the factors that are responsible for the rankings.

Cost Per Thousand (CPT)

The cost of one thousand digital advertising impressions aimed at a specific target audience. Sometimes also referred to as cost per mile (CPM).

Cost-per-Lead (CPL)

Often abbreviated as CPL, Cost-per-lead is a pricing model for online advertising.  Advertisers pay for the cost of a lead, rather than a click or a full conversion to a sale.


The expected number of a target audience that will be reached by an advert.

Crawl Budget

The average number of pages a bot or spider will analyse on your website.

Crawl Error

Crawl errors occur when a search engine attempts to reach a page on a website but fails. These errors prevent search engine bots from reading content and indexing pages.


A crawler is a program used by search engines to collect data from the internet.

Crawler Directives

Crawl directives are ways to inform search engines such as Google, how to behave when crawling and indexing your website.


Crawling is the process search engines use to discover your website and web pages.

Critical Rendering Path

The sequence of steps a browser goes through to convert HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to display a webpage on screen.

Crowdsourced Content

Third party information, work or opinions obtained from a large group of people who submit their data online or using social media or smartphone apps.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)

CSS or Cascading Style Sheets is a computer language used to define the look and format of a website, webpages and HTML documents.

Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)

Customer Acquisition Cost is the overall cost of landing a new customer and encouraging them to purchase a product or service.

Customer Journey

The steps and experiences that a customer goes through when interacting with a company and brand.

Customer Relationship Management

The process of managing engagement with prospective, current and past customers or stakeholders.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System

A software system used to manage, monitor, and record customer and stakeholder relationship activity. See Customer Relationship Management.


Facts and statistics collected for the purpose of reference or analysis.

Data Visualisation

Graphical representation of information and data. Examples include charts, graphs, infographics, and maps.

Dead-End Page

A webpage that has no links on it. It is referred to dead end because a user has nowhere else to go other than use the backwards function.

Deep Link

A type of link that send users directly to content deeper within a website or app.

Defective Links

A link that does not lead to anything.


Temporary or permanent removal of a site or pages from a search engine’s index and search results.

Demand Side Platform (DSP)

A digital advertising inventory system to multiple advertising campaigns using one interface.

Digital Asset Management

Or DAM for short, is a system that stores, shares and organises assets within a central location.


A file system cataloguing structure which contains references to other files and directories.  A web directory or link directory is an online list or catalogue of websites.

Directory links

An online list or catalogue of websites.


The process of discarding harmful or low-quality links pointing to your website or asking a search engine to not take specific backlinks into account when ranking your website.


Click distance is the number of clicks it takes to get from the homepage to a specified page or document.


DMOZ was a multilingual open-content directory of links on the internet. It is now no longer available. [link to blog article on AD site]


Domain Name Server (DNS) is a standard protocol designed to help Internet users find websites.   It uses addresses readable by humans and can almost be said to be the phonebook of the internet.


These are links that search engines follow and score to rank your website.  First introduced as a term by Google in 2005 to reduce spam indexing and improve search results. In SEO they give ‘link juice’ and have a positive impact on page ranking.


Short for Document Object Model, DOM is a programming interface for HTML and XML documents.  It defines the logical structure of documents and the way they are accessed and edited.

Domain Authority

A search engine ranking score that predicts a website’s ability to rank on a search engine’s results page.  Domain authority indicates a website’s relevance for a specific subject or industry sector – this has a direct impact on its ranking.

Domain name registrar

A search engine ranking score that predicts a website’s ability to rank on a search engine’s results page.  Domain authority indicates a website’s relevance for a specific subject or industry sector – this has a direct impact on its ranking.

Domain Rank

The ranking of a website on a search engines results page. See Domain authority.

Domain Trust

A search engines interpretation of the integrity and trustworthiness of a website.  The quality of website links combined with quality content are important factors influencing domain trust.

Domain Name

A domain name is the unique address of a website.   People typically enter your URL domain address into their browser bar to visit your website.

Doorway Linking

Creating links that lead to doorway pages. See Doorway Pages.

Doorway Page

In SEO, doorway pages are purposely created to rank highly for specific search queries. They lead users to multiple similar pages in search results.  This is a ‘black hat’ SEO technique which is frowned upon and should be avoided.

Drip Campaign

A drip campaign is a marketing and communications tactic that releases or ‘drips’ a series of campaign messages to a target audience gradually over time.


DuckDuckGo is an internet search engine that focuses on protecting searchers’ privacy. It avoids profiling users which means all users are served the same search results.

Duplicate Content

Identical content that appears on the Internet in more than one place.

Dwell Time

The length of time a visitor spends on a webpage before returning to the page from which they arrived.

Dynamic Content

Any digital content that changes based on insight data, behaviour, or preferences. Typically seen on websites, emails and apps.


Short for electronic book, is a publication available in a digital format.

Editorial Calendar

A visual plan of content that has been scheduled on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. Editorial calendars can be helpful tools for planning, monitoring and publishing content.

Editorial Links

An editorial link is a one-way link placed within the content of a webpage on a third-party website, that’s links directly to a resource on your website. Editorial links can give your website authority and significantly increase traffic.


Also known as electronic mail, it is a widely used digital form of communications, that allows you to send and receive messages across the internet to and from anyone globally with an email address.

Email List

An electronic mailing list that enables widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. See Email.


User or customer interaction with a campaign, content, webpage, advert or other marketing activity.

Engagement Rate

A metric used to analyse how well your target audience are interacting with your content or campaign activity.  E.g., Number of likes, shares, or comments on content published on a social media platform.

Evergreen Content

In SEO, evergreen content is optimised online content that stays relevant and up-to-date over a long period of time. Often written about days, events or historical facts e.g. Valentine’s Day, Christmas Carols, or Halley’s Comet facts.

Exact Match Keyword

Used in Google Ads and organic search, an exact-match keyword refers to content or advertising criteria that matches all of the keywords in the search query exactly and in the right order.

External Link

Hyperlinks that point to webpages on a different website domain.


A very popular social networking platform and service provider founded by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004.

Faceted Navigation:

This is a way of personalising a webpage to help users find what they need more easily.  Facets are indexed categories that narrow down a search listing. On an eCommerce or retail website, facet filters can typically be found on the left- or right-hand side of a webpage.

Featured Snippet

These are selected and highlighted search results that are shown above Google’s organic results either before or after Google Ads.  They typically try to answer a user’s question, without them leaving the search results page.

Fetch and Render tool

A tool within Google’s Search Console that enables you to test how a Google bot will crawl a webpage.

File Compression

A method for reducing the size of a file by 50%-90%.

Followed Link

A link on a website that a Search Engine bot will follow.  When a webpage has an inbound link, it is looked upon. more favourably by search engines and gets a small SEO boost.


A web form or HTML form enables a user to input information on a webpage.  The information is then sent to a server for processing.


The number of times a target audience will be exposed to an advert.

Fresh Web Explorer

An SEO and link building tool from SEOmoz.


Friction in marketing is a sticking point that potentially holds back, slows, or stops a customer from completing a desired outcome. Friction on a webpage is any factor that inhibits a user completing a desired task.

Geographic Modifiers

Also referred to as a geo-modifier, location modifier or location qualifier, is a search term that includes a reference to location. E.g., “Hotels in Edinburgh”.

Google Ads

Previously known as Google Adwords, Google Ads is a pay-per-click advertising platform managed by Google.

Google Analytics

A website analytics tool that tracks and reports website traffic.

Google Analytics goals

A range of measure to assess how well an app or website is performing against its target objectives.

Google My Business:

A free Google listing service used to find local businesses.

Google Panda

A Google algorithm update designed to reduce low-quality content in search results. Released in 2011.

Google Penguin

A Google algorithm update designed to reduce webspam and unethical ‘black hat’ SEO and link building tactics. Released in 2012.

Google Quality Guidelines:

Quality control guidelines that are given to Google employed search quality raters to evaluate search results. They are based on what Google believes the search users wants.

Google RankBrain

A machine learning-based search engine algorithm used by Google to determine the most relevant search results.

Google Search Console

Formerly known as Google Webmasters Tools, this is a web service that audits the indexing and optimisation status of a website.

Google Search Operators

Commands used in Google search to refine search results.

Google Tag Manager

A tool that manages and deploys marketing tags on a website without changing the code.


A social media platform owned by Google. Launched in 2011 its aim was to compete with other social media platforms such as Facebook.  Due to low user numbers, it was deemed a failure and was shut down in 2019.

Googlebot / Bingbot

Automated web crawler software that mimics a website user, in order to build a searchable index for Google or Microsoft.


In marketing this is advertising cost terminology referring to rate card price minus any discount.

Gross Rating Point (GRP)

Typically refers to how many times a person will need to be exposed to an advert before they can recall it or carry out a specified call-to-action, such as purchasing a product of service.

Guest Blogging

This involves writing content for a third-party website. In general, this is a good way to drive more traffic to your own website by reaching a larger or new target audience.

H1 – H6

HTML tags that define different levels of headings. H1 are the most prominent headings, H6 are the least prominent.

Hard Offer

A commitment to purchase a product or service with an advance payment.


In social media marketing a hashtag (#) is typically used to label a post in order to connect and engage with other users based on a common theme or interest.

Head Term

Also known as head keywords, these are typically short popular keywords that have a high search volume.

Header tags

HTML tags used to separate headings and subheadings on a webpage. Also known as heading tags.

Heading Tags

HTML tags used to separate headings and subheadings on a webpage. Also known as header tags.


Titles that signpost and guide a reader through an article giving an indication of what the content below them is about.


Text indicating the nature of the content below it. In SEO a headline helps search engines decide whether content matches what users are looking for.

Hidden Text

In SEO hidden text or links in content is sometimes used to mislead search engine ranking.  This is a black hat SEO technique that goes against Google guidelines, and should be avoided.

Hilltop Algorithm

A search engine algorithm used to find documents meeting a specific keyword topic.

HITS Algorithm

A link analysis algorithm that rates webpages. It is short for Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search Algorithm.

Holistic SEO

Improving all important aspects of a website to improve and optimise its search engine ranking.

Home Page Take over (HPTO)

An advertising option that allows businesses to display their advertising exclusively on a website homepage for a specified length of time.


The main introductory page of a website, that typically loads when you type in a domain name.   It commonly hosts a menu and main links to other areas of the website to aid user navigation.


A HTML attribute used to define the language and geographic targeting of a webpage.

Hreflang Tags

A technical solution for website with similar content but published in different languages.

Htaccess File

A hypertext access file is used to configure additional features for websites.


A website creation computer language. It stands for Hypertext Mark-up Language.


Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the fundamental building blocks of the World Wide Web. It is used for load webpages using hypertext links.


Hypertext transfer protocol secure (HTTPS) is a secure version of HTTP used to exchange data between a website and an internet browser.

Hub Page

A central page featuring specific themes with interlinked, related content that links back to the page. The page informs search engines like Google how a website’s pages relate to each other.

Image Carousels

A rotating set of images in a banner format or a slideshow display on a webpage.

Image Compression

Data compression applied to digital images to reduce file size.

Image Sitemap

A list of all images on a website that should be indexed by a search engine.


In media planning, Impacts are a measure of target audience volume that an advert will reach.


The number of times your advertisement is displayed.

In scope

Falling within the specified remit, objectives, outputs or outcomes of a project.

Inbound Link

A link directed at your website from another website.

A marketing technique used to attract customers and sell products and services using content, social media, SEO and promotional brand activity.


In SEO, an index is a database used by search engines to record information about your website.

Index Coverage report

A report detailing how well a website has been indexed by Google.


The relative ability of a search engine to analyse and add a page to its search index.

Indexed Page

A website page that has been analysed by a search engine and added to its database.


The process of storing and arranging content discovered by search engine crawlers.


A visual representation of data, information or knowledge in a quick and easy to understand graphical format.

Information Architecture (IA)

The practice of structuring information to match user needs, such as the contents, layout and organisation of a website. A visual blueprint

Information Retrieval (IR)

The process of obtaining resources from an information system.

Informational Queries

Informational search queries are search engine queries that cover a broad topic where typically there may be thousands of results.


A popular video and photo sharing social network owned by Facebook.


Search intent is the main reason why a user has conducted a keyword search.

Internal Link

A link on your website that points to another link on your website.

IP Address

A numerical label assigned to and used to identify devices connected to a computer network. It stands for Internet Protocol Address.

JavaScript (JS)

A computer programming language or script, that is commonly used for building web pages.


JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data (JSON-LD) is a format of linking and structuring data


A scheduling and workflow management system aimed at helping you visualize your work.

Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

A measurement used to evaluate the success of an organisation, project or activity (Abr. KPI).


A word, phrase or question a user enters into a search engine as a search query.

Keyword Cannibalisation

A phenomenon that occurs in SEO when two or more pages on a website compete for the same keyword search.

Keyword Density

The number of times a keyword or phrase appears on a web page or within a piece of content, expressed as a ratio or percentage of the overall word count.

Keyword Difficulty

A measure of how difficult it is rank on a search engine for a specific keyword.

Keyword Explorer

A keyword research tool that finds keywords and organises them into lists.

Keyword Research

An SEO practice aimed at researching appropriate keywords for finding specific products, services, or online information.

Keyword Stuffing

A black hat SEO technique where excessive keywords are loaded into a webpage to boost search engine rankings.  It is often referred to as webspam or spamdexing.

Knowledge Graph

Information gathered from a range of different sources that is used by Google to enhance search results. Commonly used for knowledge panels, snippets, carousels, and other rich result displays.

Knowledge Panel

Snapshot information boxes that appear on the right-hand side of Google’s search pages showing rich results for common searches such as people, places, organisations, and objects.

Landing Page

A webpage that users are directed to when they click on an advert, marketing promotion, marketing email link, or campaign call-to-action.

Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI)

Also known as latent semantic analysis, this is a mathematical practice that classifies and finds information covering specific key terms or concepts.

Lazy Loading

A design pattern frequently used in web design to delay the initialisation of an object until the point when it is needed.


In marketing and sales, a lead is a contact that has been identified as a prospective customer.  Sometimes referred to as a ‘prospect’.

Lead Generation

An activity aimed at first getting a prospective customer interested in an organisation’s products or services.

Lead Nurturing

The process of looking after and developing customer relationships at every stage of the customer journey.

Lifecycle Stages

A lifecycle stage represents the different points a prospective customer can go through during their buying journey.

Lifetime Value (LTV)

An estimate of the total revenue a customer is likely to bring in over their entire relationship with a business.


Also known as a hyperlink, a link is a reference point that when clicked or tapped, leads a user to a specific document or text in another location.

Link Accessibility

The factors that have an impact on how easy a link is to find, understand and follow.

Link Bait

Creating content with the primary aim of getting individuals to share it or link to it.

Link Building

The process of getting other websites to link back to your website.

Link Equity

Also known as link juice, is a measure of how much power, influence and strength a backlink gives to another website.

Link Exchange

The process of finding a partner website and agreeing to link to it, in exchange for a link back to your site.

Link Explorer

A tool created by for gaining insight into a website’s authority, link equity and rankings.

Link Farm

A group of websites that all link together for the purpose of boosting their SEO rankings.

Link Juice

A measure of how much power, influence, and strength a backlink gives to another website.

Link Profile

The number and makeup of hyperlinks pointing to a specific website.

Link Velocity

The speed at which a website’s link profile grows over time.

Link Volume

The number of links on a specific webpage.

Linked unstructured citations

In SEO, this refers to a mention on a website or app that isn’t specifically structured for the content or listing e.g., a reference to a business within a news story.


A business networking social media platform owned by Microsoft.

List Segmentation

The process of subdividing a contact list into smaller groups that have one or more factors in common.

Local Business Schema

Code added to a website so that search engines can more easily identify what a business does.

Local Marketing

A marketing strategy that targets potential customers within a specified local area.

Local Pack

A search engine results page feature that displays useful information in response to a local search. E.g., map of a business’ location.

Local Queries

An internet search request that has a local focus e.g., Pubs in Altrincham.

Local Search

A search engine query that has a local focus e.g., Barbers in Knutsford.

Log File

A computer file that records events on an operating system or other software.

Login Forms

A data input format used to enter authentication details required to access a webpage.

Long Tail Keyword

Longer search terms or key phrases that are used by searchers that have more specific and complex search requirements.  They typically have lower search volumes but higher conversion rates.


Lifetime value per customer (LTV) compared to customer acquisition cost (CAC). A calculation of lifetime customer revenue compared to the cost of initially acquiring them.

Machine Learning

The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to enable computer systems to learn from experience without being programmed.  Search Engines use machine learning to better answer search queries and far faster than could be done manually by a human.

Makeshift Marketing

The poor practice of using multiple single-purpose marketing tools or software that were not really designed for the job.

Manual Action

Search engines can issue ‘manual action’ against a website if it deems the website to be non-compliant.  This is typically in response to a review by a human working for the search engine rather than automated.

Manual Penalty

In SEO this typically refers to a Google issued penalty against a website for breaking their code of practice. E.g., use of ‘black hat’ SEO techniques.

Market Share

The percentage of all customers within a market that are customers of a specific company.

Marketing Analytics

The practice of measuring, managing, and analysing the performance of marketing activity to improve efficiency and return-on-investment.

Marketing Automation

Use of software and technologies used to improve the efficiency of marketing activity by introducing automation for repetitive, complex or resource intensive tasks.

Marketing Funnel

Breaking down a customer journey into defined stages e.g. From lead generation to sale of a product and all stages in between.

Marketing Mix

A theory used by marketers to analyse all the main internal environmental factors that contribute to a good marketing strategy. First used in the 1960s, it is sometime referred to as the 4Ps (Product, Place, Price, Promotion) or in the case of service sector marketing, the 7Ps (Product, Place, Price, Promotion, People, Physicals, Process)..

Marketing Process

All the steps involved in putting together, delivering, and evaluating a robust marketing strategy and plan. Typically stages consists of situation analysis, strategy, marketing mix decisions, implementation, and control.

Marketing Qualified Lead (MQL)

A lead whose behaviour, action and engagement with a brand or website indicate that they are more likely to convert to a customer.

Meta Description

A HTML element that details the contents of a webpage, for the benefit of users and search engines (also called a meta-attribute or tag).

Meta Directive

HTML code that gives search engine bots instructions on how to crawl or index the content of a webpage.

Meta Directive

HTML code that gives search engine bots instructions on how to crawl or index the content of a webpage.

Meta Keywords

A type of meta tag found in the HTML source code of a webpage that describes its content.

Meta Robots Tag

HTML code that provides search engine bots directives on how to crawl or index a web page.

Meta Tags

Descriptors in a webpage’s HTML source code that tell search engines what the webpage’s content is about.


Data that provides information about other data.


Measurements used to demonstrate the effectiveness of marketing campaigns and initiatives.


A microsite is a branded content website or page that sits separately from an organisation’s main website homepage URL or brand.

Middle of the Funnel

This refers to content, activity or assets that target prospective customers who have already engaged with your brand in some way previously. I.e., engagement or refinement in the in between stages of a customer journey.


The process of minimising code and mark-up on web pages to reduce load speed and use of bandwidth.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

A version of a product with minimal features, but good enough to appeal to early adopters so that they can provide feedback for future development.

Mobile First

Designing a website or app where priority is placed on mobile user experience as opposed to desktop

Mobile Marketing

Multi-channel marketing approach targeting smartphone users.

Mobile Optimisation

Adjusting and refining a website to ensure that smartphone users have the best possible experience.

Mobile-First Indexing

The use of a mobile version of a website by a search engine for indexing and ranking.

Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR)

Income that a business can rely on bringing in on a monthly basis.


A free browser extension that provides access to on-page link metrics and website analysis tools.


A metric that indicates the popularity of linking to a website on a scale of 0-10.

Multivariate Testing

Also known as A/B testing or split testing is a process of showing two variants of the same web page or email to different target audiences in order to analyse differences in performance.